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Feed-in Tariff (FiT) UK: Essential Guide for Renewable Energy Investors

The Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme was introduced in the United Kingdom as part of the Energy Act 2008 and took effect from April 2010. It aimed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources by providing payments to individuals and organisations generating their own electricity using technologies such as solar panels or wind turbines and feeding any surplus back to the grid.

Energy suppliers in the UK were responsible for making these payments, which consisted of generation tariffs and export tariffs. The generation tariff covered the electricity produced and used by the generator, while the export tariff accounted for any surplus electricity that was fed back into the grid. However, it is important to note that the UK Government closed the FIT scheme on 1st April 2019.

Despite the closure of the scheme, the adoption of renewable energy technology has continued to grow in the UK, driven by ongoing advancements and support for other schemes that promote clean energy generation. The Feed-in Tariff scheme played a significant role in promoting renewable energy technologies in the early stages of their development and adoption within the country.

Overview of Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) in the UK

The Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) scheme was a UK Government initiative aimed at promoting the adoption of small-scale renewable and low-carbon electricity generation technologies. Introduced in April 2010, the scheme provided payments to properties and organisations that generated their own electricity using methods such as solar panels or wind turbines and fed surplus energy back to the grid.

Energy suppliers were responsible for making FiT payments to eligible participants. Some of the primary goals of the FiT scheme included encouraging the use of renewable energy, reducing carbon emissions, and increasing energy security.

However, the UK Government closed the FiT scheme on 1st April 2019. Since then, no new applications have been accepted. It is worth noting that the participants who joined the scheme before its closure will continue to receive FiT payments for the duration of their contract.

As a replacement, the UK government introduced the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) scheme in January 2020. The SEG scheme mandates energy suppliers to offer tariffs for exporting surplus renewable electricity back to the grid, helping to incentivise the generation of renewable energy.

Eligible Renewable Energy Technologies

The Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme in the UK has been designed to promote the adoption of renewable energy technologies by offering financial incentives to those who generate their own green electricity. This section will discuss the eligible renewable energy technologies for the FiT scheme.

There are five primary renewable energy technologies that qualify for the FiT scheme. These include wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), hydro, anaerobic digestion (AD), and micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems. Each of these technologies has unique features and benefits that contribute to the growth of sustainable energy production in the UK.

Wind energy systems capture the kinetic energy of wind through turbines, converting it into electricity. Wind power is an abundant and clean source of energy, making it a viable option for both small and large-scale installations. These systems can be installed on land or offshore to harness the vast potential of wind energy.

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    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology generates electricity by using photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into usable electricity. Solar PV installations can be placed on rooftops or ground-mounted systems for residential, commercial, or industrial applications. This form of renewable energy generation is particularly popular due to its ease of installation and low to zero emissions.

    Hydro power harnesses the energy of flowing water, usually through the construction of dams or run-of-river systems. Hydroelectric power is a reliable, low-emission technology that can produce electricity on a variety of scales, from small residential systems to large grid-scale installations.

    Anaerobic Digestion (AD) involves the breakdown of organic materials in the absence of oxygen. This process produces biogas, which can be burned to generate electricity or transformed into biomethane and fed into the national gas grid. AD has the potential to generate energy from a wide range of waste materials, making it an environmentally friendly solution.

    Micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems generate electricity and heat simultaneously, improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This technology is typically used in residential and small commercial applications, making it an attractive option for those seeking an integrated energy solution.

    To qualify for the FiT scheme, installations must have a Declared Net Capacity (DNC) over 50kW and up to a Total Installed Capacity (TIC) of 5MW for Solar PV and wind technologies. By supporting these renewable energy technologies, the UK aims to continue encouraging the growth of a sustainable, low-carbon electricity generation infrastructure.

    Tariff Rates and Payment Structure

    Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) in the UK are designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources by providing financial incentives to those who generate electricity using technologies such as solar panels or wind turbines. The payment structure consists of two main components: Generation Tariff and Export Tariff.

    Generation Tariff

    Under the Generation Tariff, eligible participants receive payments for the total amount of electricity generated, regardless of whether it is consumed on-site or exported to the grid. The rates are determined by the type of technology and its capacity, and are adjusted annually according to the Retail Price Index (RPI) inflation rate. For example, the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Tariff Table 1 April 2023 published by Ofgem outlines the updated rates for various renewable energy technologies.

    Some key generation tariff rates for different technologies are as follows:

    • Solar PV (≤10 kW): X.XX p/kWh
    • Wind (≤1.5 kW): Y.YY p/kWh
    • Hydro (≤15 kW): Z.ZZ p/kWh

    Export Tariff

    In addition to the Generation Tariff, an Export Tariff is offered to participants providing any surplus electricity generated back to the national grid. This is recorded separately from the Generation Tariff and is applicable to all technologies included in the scheme. Details about the payments for exporting electricity can be found on the Feed-in tariffs: payment rates published by the UK Government.

    Overall, the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) payment structure in the UK aims to promote renewable energy generation and reward those who contribute to a cleaner, more sustainable energy future.

    Application and Accreditation Process

    The application and accreditation process for Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) in the UK is overseen by Ofgem. The application process differs depending on the size and type of your renewable energy installation.

    For solar PV and wind installations with a Declared Net Capacity (DNC) over 50kW up to a Total Installed Capacity (TIC) of 5MW, the Feed-in Tariff Guidance for Renewable Installations provides a comprehensive overview of eligibility criteria and the accreditation process typically followed for applicants.

    There are two main types of accreditation applications under the FiT scheme:

    • Full accreditation: For installations that have already been commissioned or are due to be commissioned in the next two months
    • Preliminary accreditation: For applicants who have not yet commissioned their installation, but seek advanced assurance

    Applicants who require preliminary accreditation can refer to the Essential Guide to applying for preliminary accreditation under the Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) scheme to know more about the application process, evidence requirements, and tips to avoid common mistakes.

    In addition to the general guidance, you may need to complete a Ownership Register Query (ORQ), in case of disputes or discrepancies in the registration process. It is important to provide the required documentation during the application process to avoid unnecessary delays.

    Impact on the UK Renewable Energy Sector

    The Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme has played a significant role in supporting the adoption of renewable energy in the UK. Its closure in April 2019 has had observable consequences on the renewable energy sector, specifically the solar industry. The scheme was responsible for the deployment of nearly 750,000 solar PV installations on homes across the UK, mainly due to the financial support provided by FiTs.

    With the closure of the FiT scheme, the growth rate of solar installations has slowed down. The solar industry in the UK has faced uncertainty and challenges as a result of this policy change. At its peak, the FiT scheme contributed to a rapid increase in solar capacity, with 100 MW installed as of January 2010. The absence of the FiT scheme has made it difficult for small-scale renewable energy installations to thrive, as the financial incentives for homeowners have been reduced.

    However, the closure of the FiT scheme is not solely responsible for the changes observed in the UK renewable energy sector. Other external factors, such as advancements in technology, market conditions, and global policy shifts, have also played a role in shaping the industry's trajectory.

    Changes to Feed-in Tariffs Over Time

    Key Policy Amendments

    The Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme in the UK has seen a number of changes since its inception. Initially, the tariffs provided generous incentives for the installation of renewable energy systems. Over time, the tariffs were adjusted, and the scheme eventually closed to new applicants on 31 March 2019.

    One significant policy amendment was the reduction of tariffs for large-scale solar and anaerobic digestion installations, which took effect on 1 August. These changes aimed to manage the finances of the FIT scheme, ensuring value for money and maintaining sustainability.

    Smart Export Guarantee (SEG)

    Following the closure of the FIT scheme, the UK government introduced the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) in January 2020. This new scheme requires licensed electricity suppliers to offer tariffs to pay small-scale, low-carbon generators for the electricity they export to the grid.

    Under the SEG, export tariffs can be either fixed or variable rates. Generally, the tariffs are lower than those offered under the FIT scheme, but they still offer an incentive for households and businesses to invest in renewable energy systems, such as solar panels or wind turbines.

    Future Prospects and Challenges

    The Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme in the UK has experienced changes throughout its lifetime, and its future prospects and challenges are important to consider. One significant development involves the closure of both the export and generation tariffs, with the scheme closing in full to new applications as decided by the government after consultation.

    In light of these changes, one potential challenge lies in maintaining growth in the small-scale renewable energy sector without the support of the FIT scheme. Emerging alternatives, such as the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG), can provide incentives for domestic energy producers and help to mitigate some of the impacts of the FIT scheme closure.

    Additionally, the UK's transition towards market-based support mechanisms, such as Contract for Difference (CfD) and Premium Feed-in Tariff, presents both opportunities and challenges. Lessons can be learned from neighbouring countries, like Germany, which have experience with premium feed-in tariffs and market premium discussions.

    Cooperation and collaboration between policy-makers, regulators, and renewable energy stakeholders will be crucial in navigating the challenges ahead and ensuring the future growth of green energy in the UK.


    In summary, the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme played a significant role in promoting renewable energy generation in the UK. Introduced in 2010 under the Energy Act 2008, the scheme provided cash payments to households and organisations employing renewable technologies such as solar PV panels and wind turbines. This financial incentive encouraged the uptake of clean energy and contributed to the local grid.

    However, it's important to note that the FIT scheme closed to new applicants in March 2019. Existing participants continue to receive their agreed-upon payments. Tariffs and payments for the years 2023 to 2024 can be found in the Feed-in Tariff (FIT): Tariff Table 1 April 2023 published by Ofgem.

    Overall, the FIT scheme helped increase renewable energy generation in the UK and complemented national efforts towards achieving sustainability goals. Despite its closure to new applicants, its impact will continue to be felt through the remaining participants and the growth of renewable technologies in the country.

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    Mark McShane
    Content Writer
    Mark McShane is a seasoned professional in the solar industry and the owner of Skills Training Group, a leading provider of solar training and education. With years of experience in the field, Mark has developed a deep understanding of the latest trends, technologies and best practices in the industry. His expertise and passion for solar energy have helped countless professionals develop the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the fast-growing field of solar energy. Whether you’re an aspiring solar professional or an experienced industry veteran, Mark is an excellent resource for anyone looking to enhance their skills and knowledge of the solar industry.
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